Jesmond Dene- September Fungi

September is a good time to look for fungi appearing in the autumn. Fungi are in their own Kingdom and difficult to identify accurately. The familiar fruiting bodies known as toadstool or mushroom are the ephemeral visible parts of an underground network called a mycelium.

Red cracking Bolete (Boletus chrysenteron) has a reddish appearance under the cracks.
Probably Cep or Penny bun (Boletus edulis) since the flesh does not discolour.
Unlike the dark staining on this species. Most likely Bitter Bolete (Boletus calopus) often found under beech.
Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvense) is fairly common.
The blusher (Amanita rubescens) is also common and edible.
as is Shaggy Parasol (Chlorophyllum rhacodes)
Russula are difficult to name to species level.
One of the Honey Fungi (Armillaria mellea) freshly emerging showing a yellow ring.
More mature honey fungus.
The familiar Shaggy Inkcap (Coprinus comatus).
Glistening Inkcap (Coprinellus micaceus) usually found on tree stumps.
Fairy Inkcaps (Coprinellus disseminatus) are tiny very delicate and don’t last long.
Collared Earthstar (Geastrum triplex) past its best grows under Yews and has been reliably found for some years.
Rosy crust (Peniophora incarnata) looking like a spectacular plastic splodge of orange.
Abortiporus biennis, the red drops in this form are spectacular but watery and soon disperse.
Brown fungi are hard to identify, this could be Velvet Shank (Flammulina velutipes)
Probably Giant polypore (Meripilus giganteus) on fallen Beech.
Stump Puffball (Apioperdon pyriforme) commonly found in large troops on dead wood.
The white blob is a Myxomycete, a slime mould. The purple growths are the Jellydisc (Ascocoryne sarcoides) commonly found on broad leaved tree stumps.
Possibly Wood Hedgehog (Hydnum repandum)?

Reference:

https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/chlorophyllum-rhacodes.php

https://www.naturespot.org.uk/taxonomy/term/19709?page=3

Collins Complete guide to British Mushrooms (2009)

Cullercoats Bay

A view of the bay taken during early September at low tide. It shows the exposed sandstone carboniferous bedrock and brown glacial till above. The line of the 90 fathom fault can be seen on the left hand side.

One of the goals of the visit was to check on the Rock Samphire (Crithmum maritinum) shown below. Like the Yellow Samphire it is edible but some say it tastes like kerosene.

While admiring the the Samphire, two Painted lady butterflies appeared on the Red Valerian nearby. It is a migrant species originating in North Africa.

Earlier a pair of Small tortoiseshell butterflies were feeding on Common ragwort. A native species, previously in decline, seems to be more evident this year.

Vipers Bugloss (Echium vulgare) growing on the same sandy bank is also a favourite food plant of the Painted Lady butterfly.

White stonecrop (Sedum album) sheltering under a bench nearby.

Autumn is the season of the Orache, Common Orache (Atriplex patula) seems as much at home along roadsides as by the seaside.

The plastic tubs were dominated either by this Mayweed, probably Sea Mayweed (Tripleurospermum maritimum),

or Common chickweed (Stellaria media).

Plantlife regard Rosa rugosa as an invasive weed of sand dunes. Although it looks attractive with perfumed flowers and copious hips it is becoming more common along the dunes.

Cullercoats has an exposure of Permian yellow sands visible at low tide. the sea has eroded caves in the strata.

Inside one of the caves, a red alga formed large patches. Probably Hildenbrandia rubra.

Recently there was a Jellyfish swarm around the coast and the beach still had a few specimens lying stranded and dead. The Lion’s Mane jelly has long flowing tentacles surrounding the bell up to to 3m in length and is packed with stinging cells used to catch their prey of fish and other smaller jellyfish. They have a nasty sting, the fragments of tentacles can still sting without being attached to the jellyfish, so best avoided on the beach.

Yeavering Bell – Rocks

The Cheviot massif lying at the centre of the range is an outcrop of Early Devonian (360 million years ago) rock lying to the north of the Iapetus suture. This suture marks the closure of an ancient ocean as the continent of Avalonia was subducted under Laurentia. Cheviot Central granites are the remnant of an ancient volcano surrounded by an arc of andesitic lava flows, tuffs and agglomerates of the Cheviot Volcanic Formation. The Cheviot summit marks the highest point at 815m shown as the stretched feature on the horizon in the photo below.  Yeavering Bell from where the photo was taken lies over Andesite bedrock.

 

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The bedrock is scarcely visible since it has been eroded and smoothed in layers of glacial till into rounded green hills. The tills are a mix of sandy diamictons till, morainic and solifluction deposits, sand, gravel, silt and clay originating from the Cheviot Hills. The deposits contain clasts derived predominantly from volcanic and intrusive rocks (basalt, andesite and granite) of the Cheviot Hills.  

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The twin peaked Yeavering bell pictured below is classed as a mountain although an easy climb. Wooded at the more sheltered base, as the ground rises Bracken predominates then moorland summits steep enough to form bare scree. Scree forms as a result of freeze- thaw processes on the rock.

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Andesite is the name used for a family of fine-grained, extrusive igneous rocks that are usually greyish in colour. They often weather to various shades of purplish brown. It is rich in plagioclase feldspar minerals and may contain biotite, pyroxenes, or amphiboles.

The scattered rocks below have a pinkish glow where the surface is fresher.

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This larger boulder is pinkish orange due to the presence of orthoclase feldspar.

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A close up of a specimen shown the fine grained material with larger white phenocrysts probably of plagioclase feldspar. A phenocryst is a conspicuous, large crystal embedded in a finer-grained matrix of smaller crystals in an igneous rock.

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This boulder like many in the uplands is covered in Lichen. The green is ‘Map Lichen’ (Rhizocarpon geographicum) forming a complicated pattern with the grey Rhizocarpon reductum.

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Lecanora  sulphurea, the dull green crustose is often parasitic on Aspicilia

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Calcarea pictured below.

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The bright yellow crust looks like Candelariella coralliza.

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This sample of Cladonia rangiformis was lying loose at the summit but I could not identify where it came from but it could easily occur up here.

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Reference: http://www.gefrin.com/yeavering/yeavering.html

https://www.bgs.ac.uk/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?pub=CHVG

Lichens : Frank S. Dobson

Yeavering Bell – Botany

This photograph of the hill shows the rounded topography of the Cheviots and the progression from agricultural fields through tree and bush cover through moorland vegetation to scree slopes and rocky outcrops.

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Yeavering Bell at 360m is one of the smaller hills in the Cheviot range. At its foot lies Ad Gefrin, the 7th Century, the palace of King Edwin of Northumbria and his successors.  Bede mentions it as the spot where Bishop Paulinus baptised Christian converts in the River Glen in 627 AD. No one knew its exact location until 1949, when an archaeology professor taking aerial photos spotted crop marks. Excavations in the 1950s and 1960s revealed a huge complex of great timber halls of more than 26 metres in length. There were kitchens, a timber grandstand, a weaving shed and a ‘Great Enclosure’. The site is now a grassy field and lies next to a Nature Reserve in a fenced off quarry.

By the path crossing a stream, Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus), a frequently seen plant by freshwater streams in the Cheviots. Gorse is also common on sandy lower slopes with accompanying Yellowhammers singing.

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By the Farmstead, Good King Henry (Blitum bonus-henricus). An Archaeophyte and the only perennial Goosefoot, the mealy leaves are longer-than-wide and vaguely triangular but the dense panicles of small flowers are usually without leaves within the flower-spike itself. Once used as a farmyard vegetable, I have also seen it growing in coastal locations.

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Typical sward from the lowest slopes sprinkled with Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia) known as the bluebell in Scotland. Delicate looking but tough enough to compete with the grasses.

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Lesser Hawkbit (Leontodon saxitilis) shown in closer view below.

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Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) also ubiquitous, growing  with Climbing Corydalis (Ceratocapnos claviculata) seedlings.

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Musk thistle (Carduus nutans) on the lower rough pasture, pleasantly scented, it prefers calcareous soils.

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Ling heather (Calluna vulgaris) occurred in extensive patches surrounded by Bracken. The regular areas appeared to be managed for game birds although they made a glorious purple displays.

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Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) another carpeting shrub had finishing flowering and its dark blue berries were beginning to form.

 

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Apart from a wonderful vista the top is rough and grassy. This fort was the largest of its kind in Northumberland, and had dry stone walls constructed around both of the Bell’s peaks. On the hill, over a hundred Iron Age roundhouses were constructed, supporting a large local population. The tribal group in the area was, according to later written sources, a group known as the Votadini. The remains of the perimeter wall can be seen to the right in the picture below.

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The path down from the Hillfort on a north- west facing slope, had a different suite of plants growing and little Bracken. The hairy leaves below had no flower stalks on show but I think it must be Bog Cotton (Eriophorum angustifolium) a member of the Cyperaceae family.

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Not common here, I found only one example Bell Heather (Erica cinerea) growing amid Heath Bedstraw.  An excellent plant for pollinators, it prefers drier acid condition,

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whereas Wild thyme (Thymus polytrichus) although growing not far away thrives on limy soils.

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White Stonecrop (Sedum album) also a lime lover grows on or near rocks.

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Wood Sage (Teucrium scorodonia) surprised me. Some sources say it grows in acid soils others that it grown on Limestone pavements.

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A final view of the Cheviot summit showing extensive heather management and the dark green encroaching Bracken on the lower slopes.

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Yeavering Bell means ‘the hill of goats’ and we were lucky to see many feral goats (Capra aegagrus) thought to be descended from Neolithic or Iron age stock.

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Reference:

https://www.northumberlandnationalpark.org.uk/places-to-visit/the-cheviots/ad-gefrin/

http://www.wildflowerfinder.org.uk/

Collins Wild Flowers Guide (2nd edition)

Iris Brickfield Pond

general

The Iris Brickfield Park has had various uses over the years from farmland to brickworks, landfill and now recreation.  During the Last Glacial Period which ended approx 10,000 years ago thick deposits of glacio-lacustrine clays and muds were left behind as glacial Lake Wear drained, leaving behind material suitable for brick making. The resulting hollow has been modelled as a wetland /pond area.

At present, very little open water can be seen due to lack of rainfall and extensive growth of the reed bed vegetation, like Bulrush (Typha latifolia) shown below.

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Branched Bur Reed (Sparganiumn erectum)can also quickly colonise open water.

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However, an even more troublesome plant, New Zealand Pigmyweed (Crassula helmsii) is a non-native invasive plant which has both emergent and submerged growth forms. It can grow in water up to 3 meters deep and on the pond margin at some distance from the water.  It forms thick mats over much of the pond. It can regenerate from as little as a 2 mm fragment of stem which makes it very easy to spread between ponds. Once in a pond, it’s regenerative abilities make it incredibly difficult to control.

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As a member of the Crassula family, it uses crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) a kind of photosynthesis which involves opening their stomata at night reducing water losses. As the pond goes through its natural ecological succession from open water to marsh conditions Pygmyweed gains a competitive advantage over the other plants.

It is ubiquitous in the picture below, but Water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile) and  Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) seem to be maintaining a foothold.

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The sedge below is Lesser Pond sedge (Carex acutiflorus), the pointed female glumes are shown in detail in the succeeding photo, growing with Sharp flowered rush (Juncus acutiflorus) and Jointed rush.

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Where you find Lesser pond sedge, Greater pond sedge (Carex riparia) usually occurs. It is  more glaucous and tougher with lanceolate -ovate female glumes. Last year I found False fox sedge but not so far it has not been noticed.

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Also often growing together: Sharp flowered (Juncus acutiflorus) and Jointed rush (J articulatus). The jointed rush has flattened curved stems whereas the sharp flowered is straight of habit. a comparison shown below. Unsurprisingly, soft rush also occurred.

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There are a fairly common collection of flowering plants that often grow in wet habitats such as Sneezewort (Achillea ptarmica),

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and Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria)

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Water forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides) generally prefers the wetter ground  easily noticed due to its bright blue flowers but Tufted Forget me not (Myosotis laxa) was also present.

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A picture of Water mint (Mentha aquatica) also reveals Common spike rush Eleocharis palustris) although just a dried up flower spike now.

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Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) tucked behind Common Reed (Phragmites australis),

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and Yellow Loosestrife, (Lysimachia vulgaris), a sole plant hiding under the dipping platform.

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Marsh willowherb (Epilobium pallustre) likes acid wet ground and is often found with rushes.

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As pond succession continues trees will eventually invade the drying ground.  Crack willow (Salix fragilis) is rapidly colonising although Goat willow (Salix caprea) forms the thicket behind.

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This Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) has a good crop of sloe berries this year.

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The visible water surface seems lacking in any submerged plants but Pond Snail (Lymnaea stagnalis),

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Great Ramshorn snail (Planorbarius corneus) and some tiny fish were visible.

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Reference:

Collins Wild Flower Guide

Allotment insects

Allotments attract a diversity of insects though they are not always visible or easy to photograph.  Providing a suitable environment for insects often means encouraging a range of native and naturalized plants. Nettles provide food and shelter for these small tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae) caterpillars emerging from their silken nest.

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Ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria) is also a favourite food resource for bees and hoverflies. White tailed bumblebee (Bombus lucorum) is a complex of widespread and abundant species, typically black-and-yellow banded. It has a lemon-yellow collar at the front of the thorax and another bright yellow band in the middle of the abdomen, with a pure white tail.

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Males have bright yellow facial hairs and are often extensively yellowed, particularly in the thorax.  Below is a Common Carder bee (Bombus pascuorum) though not as ginger as some, so perhaps a male.

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Red tailed bumble bees (Bombus lapidarius) are seen on many flower species even on  Creeping buttercups.  This one is a worker and has no banding.

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Buff tailed bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) has a short tongue but still manages to sup nectar by biting holes at the base of  tubular flowers like Russian Comfrey (Symphytum  x uplandicum).

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White tailed and Buff tailed workers are difficult to tell apart.

lucorum?

A few weeks ago, this small and very cute bee turned to feed on Sage (Salvia officinalis).  Coloured grey it fitted the description of a Grey mining Bee (Andrena cineraria). It’s  a grey hairy face and body suggests it was a male.

 

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Another common allotment and garden bumble bee, the Tree bee (Bombus hypnorum) arrived in the UK in 2001 and since then has spread widely and is pictured below. Although an invasive species the advice is to leave them alone to complete their natural breeding cycle.

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Featured next in a rather poor photograph is another worrisome species the Harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) with a 7 spot (Coccinella septempunctata) ladybird for comparison. It is highly variable in appearance and reaches huge numbers in the Autumn. The 7 spot is more common on the allotment at the moment.

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but the larva in the photograph below is a Harlequin.

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An unusual looking bee turned up this week. Completely unfamiliar to me, a male Hairy footed flower bee (Anthophora plumipes).  A solitary bee, they are spreading from the South, perhaps due to climate warming.

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References:

Bumblebee conservation trust

UK Ladybird Survey

Tyne Watersmeet

 

Tyne Watersmeet is an SSSI, noted for its invertebrate life, Flora, Bryophyte and Lichen communities, at the confluence of the North and South Tyne rivers. On a sunny morning in early March the River Tyne sparkled silver and peaty bronze in the sunshine. The carboniferous rock strata provides a range of siliceous, limestone and river bank (riparian) environments. From this viewpoint on Warden rocks a male Goosander flew past heading upstream.

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Wild daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) were already in flower, distinguishable from the cultivated varieties by the strongly coloured trumpets glowing between six translucent tepals and long papery bract. It is the only native British daffodil.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAViolets are commonly seen on the riverbank. Sweet violet (Viola odorata) was in flower. The petals can be rich violet or white and the spur lilac, the leaves have rounder tips than other violets.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Wood anemone (Anemone nemoralis) is an indicator species of ancient woodland, this one, on the brink of flowering.

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Early in the year plants may be recognized by their leaves. The hairy looking leaves in the picture below are of Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) and the leafy liverwort growing beside it Greater Featherwort (Plagiochila asplenoides).

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Alternate leaved Golden Saxifrage (Chrysoplenium alternifolium) has attractive leaves appearing amid the Ivy.

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Ivy seems to be spreading rapidly even smothering this Lesser celandine (Ficaria verna) in flower. The longer leaves sprouting nearby are hooded at the tip suggesting it is Yellow Star-of-Bethlehem (Gagia lutea), a locally rare plant.

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Snowdrops were abundant, their grey-green leaves, by way of contrast, are not fused at the tip.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWoodland mosses frequently covered riverside rocks such as this Common mouse-tail (Isothecium  mysuroides),

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and Swan’s neck thyme moss (Mnium hornum).

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A Beech twig played host to a fungi that looks like Beech Barkspot (Diatrype disciformis), found on the woodland floor of a mixed plantation. Common Crossbills were calling from the Scots Pines, though difficult to spot, while Coal, Great and Blue tits, Chaffinch and Yellowhammers fluttering from tree to tree. Judging by the eaten pine cones, squirrels had been dining there and Badger feeding holes provided evidence of a nearby sett. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Other plants noticed:Greater Woodrush (Luzula sylvatica), Arum Lily (Arum maculatum), Dogs’ Mercury (Mercurialis perennis), Wild Garlic (Allium ursinum), Sanicle (Sanicula europaea), Primrose (Primula vulgaris), Pignut (Conopodium majus), Leopard’s Bane (Doronicum pardalianches).

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Reference:

SSSI

Blyth South Beach

Blyth harbour is 7 miles from Newcastle upon Tyne and is still an active port. The East Pier light see below was built in 1884 to assist shipping entering a busy port. A Black-headed gull feeding in the shallow water.

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Although it was early January yacht racing had started.  The royal Northumberland yacht club is based in the marina at Blyth.

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Wind turbines are a feature offshore but have reached the end of their working lives and scheduled for removal.

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Birdlife seemed scarce on the beach since the tide was rolling in. It was surprising to see a Razorbill near the shore. Healthy birds are seldom seen close to land outside of the breeding season. This one was diving frequently for food.

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I found this fossil on the beach, It looks like some fish or sea creature.

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By Seaton sluice harbour a Turnstone was looking for food under the seaweed.

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Small nettle (Urtica urens) growing in a sheltered spot in the harbour,

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alongside Annual mercury (Mercurialis annua) a member of the Spurge family, and appears to be flowering.

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It proved to be an invigorating beach walk by the breaking surf.

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Reference:

Northumberland shore SSSI

 

Marsden Rocks and Cleadon Hills

The cliffs at Marsden Bay are spectacular even in December. Composed of 16-20 metres of cream and buff dolostone of the Concretionary Limestone formation, commonly referred as the Mag limestone formed in the late Permian period. The large sea stack in the picture below is composed of collapse-brecciated Concretionary Limestone.  Stacks like Marsden Rock were once joined to the mainland but weaknesses in the limestone create caves, arches and stacks over time. A spectacular coast is the result.

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The cliffs are made of layers of Magnesian Limestone which formed in the ancient Zechstein Sea. Within the original rock sequence was a thick layer of a soluble salty mineral (Hartlepool Anhydrite), which formed during a period when the Zechstein Sea evaporated and became saltier. After millions of years, the sequence was tilted and uplifted above sea level and the anhydrite dissolved away. The limestone above it collapsed and broke up. These broken up and fractured rocks are known as ‘collapse breccias, they are visible in the deformed cliffs below on the bottom right hand corner.

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Seabirds use these coastal features for nesting. Although the fulmar pairs below won’t be nesting until May, the female has glands that store sperm to allow weeks to pass between copulation and the laying of the egg.

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Sinkholes are a feature of this coastline.

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These impressive limekilns were built in the 1870s. Layers of limestone and coal were dropped in the top and burnt to make lime, which was used to improve acid soils and to make cement and concrete. Lime was also important for the steel and chemical industries. Coal sourced from from Whitburn Colliery fired the kilns. A village was built to house workers for the colliery and limeworks. After the colliery closed in 1968 the village was no longer needed, people moved to new houses nearby and the village was demolished. The cliff-top grassland where the village stood became a grassland of lime loving or calcicole plants.

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Cleadon Hill is a ridge of high ground standing between the village and the coast. Around 260 million years ago the hills were, together with others in the area, a group of small low islands in a tropical lagoon formed by the Zechstein Sea. Is it a conservation area due to its plant-rich magnesian grasslands. Exmoor ponies are helping to maintain the flower rich areas by grazing the rougher grass species.

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Some lichens prefer limestone as a substrate such as bright white Aspicilia calcarea below, growing on a wall.

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and the orange yellow rosettes of Caloplaca flavescens.

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The site is also dominated by the landmark Cleadon Water Tower, in fact a chimney for the former steam-powered pumps, which is visible for miles around, as far south as the Headland in Hartlepool.

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The views to all sides are worth the short climb. To the South, Roker pier is visible,

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while looking to the North, Tynemouth Pier and Priory are prominent.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAMarsden Old quarry is a Nature Reserve forming a patchwork site of a variety of habitats which include areas of lowland meadow and pasture, magnesian limestone grassland and some semi-improved neutral grassland. This site of approximately 6.3ha supports an abundance of wildflower species such as Kidney vetch, Hoary plantain and Common Bird’s-foot Trefoil as well as Lady’s Bedstraw and Bee orchids. The geology is also of great interest and worth further exploration.

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Gorse (Ulex europaeus)is always a thorny subject but this one was not in flower.

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With the coming evening the clouds were colouring up over the golf course,

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and The Cheviot hills unmistakeable in the distance.

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Reference:

Durham coast SSSI

A Magnesian Limestone Geotrail

Cleadon geology

Rothley Circular Walk

This winter walk took a route along part of the the Wanney line, Rothley Lake, Crag and Mill.

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Without leaves it was difficult to identify this tree from it’s shining berries but the fallen leaves looked like cotoneaster so probably it was Hedge cotoneaster (Cotoneaster lucidus.)  A flock of Fieldfare were seen nearby so the berries might be as attractive to them as to us.

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The path took us along the Wanney or Wannie line named after the river Wansbeck. Originally thirteen miles long, starting from Morpeth, it reached Rothbury in 1870 after seven years in construction. It was used to carry coal, stone, livestock, lime and passengers before its closure to passengers in 1952 and freight in 1963. Sir Walter Trevelyan, owner of Wallington (1846-1879) was the driving force behind the building of the railway. The revenue that came to the estate was spent on his house and improving the estate.

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On the way we sought out this  venerable hollowed ancient ash tree. Ash trees can live for 400 years or more if they have been coppiced or pollarded. The hollow structure actually helps them survive longer.

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Evidence  of ridge and furrow cultivation in the photo above, typical of the open field system in the middle ages when non reversible ploughs were used. It survives on higher ground where arable fields were converted to sheep walk in the 15th Century and not ploughed since.

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The characteristic S shaped pattern of ridges ploughed by oxen is shown in comparison to the straight rig and furrow. Oxen were yoked in larger teams than horses and since they ploughed in a clockwise direction needed more turning room. In the background, Rothley Crags shows its windy exposures by the lack of vegetation unlike the plantation below.

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These interestingly shaped leaves belong to Intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media).

 

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The lake forms part of the deer-park created by Sir William Calverley-Blackett (2nd Baronet) the owner of Wallington Estate who built Rothley Castle as a folly and the Codger Fort to prove loyalty to King George II during the Jacobite rebellion. The lake was landscaped by Capability Brown. The bird feeders by the lake hide were thronged by tits: Blue, Great, Coal and a pair of delightful Marsh tits. Nuthatch and chaffinch also visited while a Crossbill was heard in the trees.

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The lake surroundings have been planted with Scots Pine, Sitka spruce and Beech but moss thrived among old stumps as did Caluna vulgaris and Bilberry. Given the red stems, this moss is Red-stemmed feather moss (Pleurosium schreberi) an inhabitant of open heathy woodland.

c portentosa.JPGLichens survive in exposed moorland conditions of Rothley Crag. The lichen above is Cladonia portentosa, perhaps not as widespread as it should be in these conditions. Parmelia omphalodes, below, commonly seen on exposed base-poor rocks such as the Rothley grits.

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Sphaerophorus globosus is a bushy attractive lichen apparently fairly common in upland areas.

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Sphaerophorus fragilis, however, forms more compact cushions, lacks the pinkish tinge and usually grows at greater altitude.

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All we saw of Rothley mill was this attractive trough. The mill was a water-powered cornmill on the Hartburn, now a private dwelling, interesting in legend as the dwelling place of Queen Mab and her fairies. A dipper was seen on the Hartburn and a yellowhammer on the trees nearby.

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Reference:

Lichens – Frank S. Dobson

Collins Wild Flower Guide- David Streeter at al.